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Over the years there has been much thought and research given to the way design influences crime and the fear of crime. The police's Secured by Design programme provided both guidance and an award system to support environments that help to reduce crime.

Click here to access our lesson on Social policy objectives


Not all cyclists may require the same help when considering street design. There is a distinction between sports cyclists, keen on long distances, children going to school and people who use a bike for short journeys.

Click here to access our lesson on Quality audits for highways schemes



Demolitions should be identified clearly as buildings, edges and landscaping (for example trees) and so on could be protected.

In some cases demolitions can contradict certain planning policies. It's the job of the assessor to compare the existing and proposed situations, and to ensure the demolitions (if any) are consistently shown on all drawings.

Click here to access our lesson on Technical drawings


Density describes not just how many flats or units exist, but how intensively and efficiently land will be used. It is a numerical measure created by dividing the amount of building by the size of the site it sits on.

Click here to access our lesson on The individual elements


Now comes the balancing act – you realise you can’t do everything! And make sure the scheme makes a profit too! So what goes, what stays, how do you decide, and how does it affect your design? Negotiation is the name of the game, and optimising good results by coming up with creative ideas of what to put where – that’s designing.

Click here to access our lesson on Design process

Design and access statements

Design and access statements are documents that accompany most planning applications and apply the thinking behind the application. They should show, for example, that the applicant has thought carefully about how everyone (including people with disabilities, the old and the very young), will be able to use the places that the applicant wants to build.

Click here to access our lesson on Planning tools

Design and appeals

The applicant has the right to appeal against a planning decision. They may appeal against a refusal to grant planning permission, or against a condition imposed on a permission. Appeals are heard by the Planning Inspectorate, an organisation that reports to the Secretary for State and Minister for Planning.

Click here to access our lesson on Planning process

Design brief

A design brief is the description of what is wanted on a development site in design terms.

Click here to access our lesson on Commissioning design work

Design champions

Appointing design champions can help to focus minds and ensure that design issues, in both urban and rural areas, are placed firmly on the local authority's agenda.

Champions in local authorities at both officer and member level have distinct but complementary roles. The research carried out with design champions from the South East in 20065 confirmed that their overall task is to raise and maintain a high profile for quality design in the built environment within their organisations and localities.

Click here to access our lesson on Who's responsible for good design?

Design codes

By setting patterns or codes for neighbourhoods, you can manage how the place grows organically without being too prescriptive. You set the basics and the designers work within these to create a range of distinctive places that work well together.

Click here to access our lesson on Planning tools

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